Many people, who were interested in building of wooden house, heard of fachwerkhaus. This technology started to develop in the XV century in Germany and is very popular now in many countries. If we talk about benefits, there are no supporting walls, only structure that is made of the horizontal and vertical elements produced of beams. The space between the beams is filled with adobe, stone, brick, wood or other materials. The walls do not bear the load, so they can be put away and always in a new way to organise the interior of the house. Fachwerkhaus buildings are strong and durable service life of more than 500 years.
Ancient traditions of houses building and modern technologies we use in the building of the fachwerkhaus, allow building perfectly durable house, where the walls are filled with materials with modern heat insulation material and finishing materials. For the construction of supporting structures (structure) is used wooden laminated log, which is due to the special impregnation is practically fire-rated, and use of well drained glued of some lamellas of wood provides longevity and durability. Wooden structure is – visible, usually contrast colored with a facade that gives a special character and style of the whole building. Fachwerkhaus is light, minimal load on the ground, respectively, does not require reinforced foundation. "Turn-key" building lasts no more than six month; it can be occupied immediately, because it provides no shrinkage.
Timber framing and "post-and-beam" construction are traditional methods of building with heavy timbers, creating structures using squared-off and carefully fitted and joined timbers with joints secured by large wooden pegs. If the structural frame of load-bearing timber is left exposed on the exterior of the building it may be referred to as half-timbered, and in many cases the infill between timbers will be used for decorative effect. The country most known for this kind of architecture is Germany, where timber-framed houses are spread all over the country.
The method comes from working directly from logs and trees rather than pre-cut dimensional lumber. Hewing this with broadaxes, adzes, and draw knives and using hand-powered braces and augers (brace and bit) and other woodworking tools, artisans or framers could gradually assemble a building.
Since this building method has been used for thousands of years in many parts of the world, many styles of historic framing have developed. These styles are often categorised by the type of foundation, walls, how and where the beams intersect, the use of curved timbers, and the roof framing details.
The earliest known type of infill, called opus craticum by the Romans, was a wattle and daub type construction. Opus craticum is now confusingly applied to a Roman stone/mortar infill as well. Similar methods to wattle and daub were also used and known by various names, such as clam staff and daub, cat-and-clay, or torchis (French), to name only three.
Wattle and daub was the most common infill in ancient times. The sticks were not always technically wattlework (woven), but also individual sticks installed vertically, horizontally, or at an angle into holes or grooves in the framing. The coating of daub has many recipes, but generally was a mixture of clay and chalk with a binder such as grass or straw and water or urine. When the manufacturing of bricks increased, brick infill replaced the less durable infills and became more common. Stone laid in mortar as an infill was used in areas where stone rubble and mortar were available.
Other infills include bousillage, fired brick, unfired brick such as adobe or mudbrick, stones sometimes called pierrotage, planks as in the German ständerbohlenbau, timbers as in ständerblockbau, or rarely cob without any wooden support. The wall surfaces on the interior were often "ceiled" with wainscoting and plastered for warmth and appearance.
Brick infill sometimes called nogging became the standard infill after the manufacturing of bricks made them more available and less expensive. Half-timbered walls may be covered by siding materials including plaster, weatherboarding, tiles, or slate shingles.
The infill may be covered by other materials, including weatherboarding or tiles. or left exposed. When left exposed, both the framing and infill were sometimes done in a decorative manner. Germany is famous for its decorative half-timbering and the figures sometimes have names and meanings. The decorative manner of half-timbering is promoted in Germany by the German Timber-Frame Road, several planned routes people can drive to see notable examples of Fachwerk buildings.